-A Natural calamity where water flows over & elone the natural situation with force in a specified area & period.
-According Geological sevres of India 12.8% area under floods.
-Floods is not only in coastal belt but also in other area. Flood is different from cyclone Tsunami.
-Cyclone&Tsunami are can fined only to coastal area. Floods area UP - 21.9%, BH - 12.7% are more.
Characteristics of floods
1) Specified area
2) Specified time
3) Natural over flow
4) Normal over flow
5) Pertaining to all areas.
Types of floods:Four types of floods
1. Reiverine floods- Occurs in overflowing the banks of the river.
2. Coastline floods- Coastal of tides, storms&Low pressure created in oceans.
3. Urban floods- Due to leakage & non-planning of drainage.
4. Flash flood- Floods occur of sudden coastal of heavy rains or melting of snow.
Causes of floods
1. Continuos heavy rainfall
2. Concentrated rainfall (vertical rainfall)
3. Bad drainage
4. Block of river channels
5. Change of river flow
6. Narrowness of rivers&canals
7. Decreasing of mangroves
Floods in India
1. 1978 North East floods- 3800 population
2. 1994 Uttara kasi floods- 2000 persons, Himachalpradesh-800
3. 1998-99 Assom floods
4. 1997 Bihar floods- 10,000 dead, 1 million no shelter.
5. 2005 one notable urban flood in Mumbai
Floods in A.P
-1977 Diviseema flood- 9921 persons dead
-1979 Coastal flood- 10 districts effected 635 dead
-1990 Coastal flood- 14 districts effected 976 dead
-2009 Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kunda river floods- vertical rainfall
Steps taken by Govt
-1952- National Programme for flood organisational to control&manage floods.
-1956- National Water Commission control to solve interstate dispute also control floods.
-1957- Central Flood Control Board (CFCB), relief responsible.
-1958- National Institute of Flood management cochi training institute
-1962- Director of General Civil Defence (DGCD), Delhi. DGCD all defence staff use to rehabilitates and relief people.
-1968- Comprehensive Civil Defence Act (CCDAC) to strength DGCP
-1969- Flood Information Centre establishment through out country- Central Water Commission.
-2005- National Disaster Management- authority headed by P.M looks activity of every management and all disasters.
-2005- State disaster management authority headed by Chairman is C.M.
-2006- Indian National for Open Service. Supervises everything, supervises corruption and check grants are correctly useful.
Flood management suggestion
-Ist phase (Response and relief)- communication setup+Altering the complete bureau cratch
-Rehabilitation & Reconstruction shelters and provide, persons shift.
-Migration- a) Structural mitigation-> Tanks, projects, shelter, making people away from flood prone area.
b) Non-Structural mitigation-> making awareness in public community organisations, students organisations- one to be trained the making everyone to participated.
Warning is issued by..
-the Central Water Commission (CWC)
-Irrigation & flood control department
-Water resources department
-Indian Meteorological Department (IMO), Delhi
-Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune
-National Centre Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), Noida (U.P)
-National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai
-National Centre for Antarcitic & Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa
-Indian National Centre for Ocean & Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad
-Integrated Coastal & Marine Area Management (ICMAM), Chennai
-Centre for Marine Living Resourced & Ecology (CMLRE), Cochin
Important Floods in India
-In 1968- Rajasthan, Gujarath, North-West India, West bengal, Assom effected flood. Dead 4,890.
-In 1978- North India (Uttarakhand, Himachalpradesh), Assom- 5,800 dead.
-In 1997- Andhrapradesh, Arunachalpradesh, Bihar, Gujarath, Himachalpradesh- 2000 dead
-In 2000- Gujarath, A.P, Assom, Arunachalpradesh- 1300 dead
-In 2004- with in 24 hours Mumbai received 90 cm rainfall.
-In 1977- A.P Krishna delta or Diviseema effected floods. 10,000 dead.
-In 2012- Brahmaputra floods in Assom- 125 dead
-In 2012, August 3- Himalayan floods in Uttarakhand state floods & landslides- Kedarnadh, Badrinadh, Yamunotri and Gangotri 4 chardham effected.
-In 2008- Kosi flood in Bihar
-In 2008- Maharashtra flood
-In 2009, october- Krishna river floods effected areas Mahaboobnagar, Krishna, Kurnool, Guntur, Nalgonda- 100 dead.
Floods effect areas in India
-Cyclones, Floods are common to all countries. North India & Eastern Indian are particularly prone to floods.
-The most of flood- prone areas are the Brahmaputra, Ganga and Meghana basins in the Ganga-Sindhu-Brahmaputra plains in north&north east India.
-Flood carry 60% of the retains total river flow.
-In India it is spread over 15 states & about 47% of Indias population resides in the basin.
-The other flood prone areas are the north west regions with west flowing rivers like the Narmada, Tapati.
-Central India & Deccan Plateau with major east flowing rivers like the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kavery.
-The Ganga&Brahmaputra cause maximum flooding.
-The main season for floods in India is the west monsoon period of june to september.
-Nearly 75% of the total rainfall is corrosives over a shot monsoon season of four months (June to September).
-Most of the flood affected areas liu in the Ganga&Brahmaputra basin comprising of Barak, Tista, Dihang, Lohita & Torsa.
-The north western river basin floods comprising Jhelum, chenab, Raavi, Sutlize, Beas & Ghagra.
-The peninsular river basin floods comprising Narmada, Tapati, Mahanadi, Baitarani, Godavari, Krishna, Penna & Kaveri.
-The coastal regions of A.P, T.N. Odisha, Kerala under flood prone areas.
-Assom, U.P, B.H & Odisha are some of the states who have been severally prone to floods.
-Our country receives an annuals rainfall of 1100mm, 85% of which is concentrated in 3-4 months (June to September).
-Flood forecasting & warning has been highly developed in the past two decades.
-With the advancement of technology such as satellite & remote sensing equipments flood waves can be tracked as the under level rises.