Water pollution is the contamination of..

Wed,November 27, 2019 01:19 AM


Environmental Pollution

-Presence of dangerous unnatural ingredients causing imbalance in the ecosystem and health hazards to human beings and animals can be called as pollution.
-A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil, and is the cause of pollution.
-Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in long term.

Air pollution

-Air pollution is the contamination of air by a variety of substances, causing health problems and damaging our environment. It has thinned the Ozone layer above the Earth, exposing us to harmful UV radiation from the sun.
-Much of the pollution from these sources stems from the burning of fossil fuels, including coal and oil.

1. Carbon monoxide (Co): Co is produced from incomplete combustion of all types of natural and synthetic products, including cigarette smoke. When it builds up in high concentrations, it can be very toxic. Cities with heavy traffic problems are known for dangerous Co levels.

2. Carbon Dioxide (Co2): it is the principal green house gas and is primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect. It can be formed from all types of common human activities, such as burning fuels and even breathing.....

3. Chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) are used in great quantitive in industry, for refrigeration and air conditioning, and in consumer products. When released into the air, they rise into the stratosphere, where they readily react with the Ozone that constitutes the ozone layer, effectively degrading it.

4. Ozone (O3): O3 gas occurs naturally in the upper atmosphere, where it shields the earth from the sun’s dangerous ultraviolet (UV) rays. When found at ground level, however, it is a pollutant. It can cause damage to humans (especially our respiratory system). The environment and a wide range of natural and artificial materials vehicle exhaust and industry waste are major sources of ground level zone.

5. Nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide (No2 and So2) are major contributors to smog and acid rain. There gases both react with volatile organic compounds to from smog, which can cause respiratory problems in humans. Acid rain can harm vegetation, change the chemist.... of river and sake water by lowering the PH so that it is harmful to animal life, and react with the marble of statues and building and decompose them.

6. Suspended particulate matter (solid material suspended in the air): Airborne particles are tiny fragments of solid or liquid nature suspended in the air (which are called aerosols).

7. Acid deposition: The process by which acidic air pollutants, generally So...2 and No...2 are deposited on the Earth. Much of this deposition occurs when the pollutants condense in water and full to the earth as precipitation, known generally as acid rain. Acid deposition causes changes in the PH of water and soil, leading to a host of Environmental problems.
-Acid deposition may be reduced by switching to low sulfur coal or by removing the sulfur either before or after combustion, often by adding scribblers to smokestacks.

8. Wet deposition: Wet deposition refers to acidic rain, fog and snow. If the acid chemicals in the air are blown into areas where the weather is wet, the acids can fall to the ground in the form of rain snow, fog or mist.

9. Dry deposition: In areas where the weather is dry, the acid chemicals may become incorporated into dust or smoke and fell to the ground through dry deposition, sticking to the ground, buildings home, cars and trees.
-Dry deposited gases and particles can be washed from these surfaces by rain storms, leading to increase runoff. This runoff water makes the resulting mixture more acidic. About half of the acidity in the atmospher falls back to earth through dry deposition.

10. Control of air pollution
-Restrictions on population growth.
-A conscious effort by the populous to conserve and waste less energy.
-The reduction of the amount of waste produced combined with a focus on recycling. Improve the efficiency with which energy is produced.
-Achieved towards the production of non-polluting renewable energy source.

Water pollution

-Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (eg: lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and ground water). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Organic pollution: Pollution that a rises from organic materials. It is broken down by aerobic (oxygen consuming) bacteria, which utilize oxygen dissolved in the water. This process lowers the water’s dissolved oxygen content.

Oxygen depletion: A spiraling cycle that reduces dissolved oxygen content in water bodies. Low dissolved oxygen levels kill many organisms, as there organisms decay, they produce more organic material, causing further oxygen depletion. The mix of species in affected water bodies changes dramatically and eventually all organisms except for anaerobic bacteria may die out.

Eutrophication: The ecological and chemical changes that occur in a water body after an input of organic matter. Oil pollution generally arises from accidental or intentional releases of oil during the recovery, transport, and use of oil. Oil pollution causes immediate death to many organisms and contaminates many others. Cleanup is extraordinarily expensive and often ineffective.

Inorganic pollution: pollution that is composed of inorganic materials. Inorganic matter high in plant nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrate compounds, encourages rapid plant growth. When these plants eventually die and decay. They are composed by aerobic bacteria, and dissolved oxygen levels decrease as a result.

Thermal pollution: Pollution that occurs when water is removed from a water body to be used as a coolant and then returned to the water body at a higher temperature. Higher water temperature lowers dissolved oxygen content and raises the risk of disease and death to aquatic organisms.

Agriculture: It is common for farmers to use fertilizers and other chemicals on their crops to help them grow. However, these chemicals and nutrients added to the soil can soak into the underground water supplies. Additionally, when it rains, there chemicals join the runoff water and flow into streams, rivers and lakes, thus polluting them. Even just the sediments of dirt, without any chemicals are pollutants in the fact that they cause the waterways to become cloudy and muddy.

Houses: Households are a leading cause of water pollution by the trash they creats. Even if taken to landfills, often this trash finds its way to natural water ways. Human waste, disposed of typically by sewers, pollute water. Any time a septic system is not installed properly or bursts beneath the ground, the underground water supply may be polluted. Oils and anti-freeze leaked from vehicles pollute water.

Effects of water pollution
-Spread of disease: Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or typhoid infections, along with diarrhoea.

Affects body organs: The consumption of highly contaminated water can cause injury to the heart and kidneys.

Harms the food chain: Taxins within water can harm aquatic organisms, thus breaking a link in the food chain causes algae in water. Urea, animal manure and vegetable peelings are food for algae. Algae grow according to how much water is in a water source. Bacteria feed off the algae, decreasing the amount of oxygen in the water. The decreased oxygen causes harm to other organisms living in the water.

Flooding: The erosion of soil into waterways causes flooding, especially with heavy rainfall.

Harms the animals: Birds that get into oil contaminated water die from exposure to cold water and air due to feather damage. Other animals are affected when they eat dead fish in contaminated streams.

Solution for water pollution

-Reestablishing wetlands to act as a buffer zone to runoff and to assist in filtering pollutants.
-Drive less to reduce the amount of air pollution being emitted into the environment and minimize the amount of nitrogen deposition.
-Improve the sewage treatment system to stop the leaks in the pipes.


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